The College of Science, Engineering and Technology offers degree programs that prepare students for high-demand professions in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. With an emphasis on Grand Canyon University’s Christian worldview, our college believes in instilling social awareness, responsibility, ethical character and compassion. Our blog, BrainSTEM, focuses on topics related to science, engineering and technology, with engaging contributions from students, staff and faculty. On the blog, you can find helpful resources relating to STEM fields and learn more about current events occurring globally, locally and within GCU. We hope to provide our readers with information that helps them learn about the necessary knowledge, skills and mental disciplines to succeed in today’s job market.
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You already know how fast technology is evolving. Think back to just a few years ago and remember the cell phone, computer and tablet that you were using. It’s possible that you’ve since replaced those items because the technology has changed so much already.

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By Mark K. Reha
Faculty College of Science, Engineering and Technology

I am a full time faculty member and program lead for the College of Science, Engineering and Technology. I teach a variety of programming languages, web application frameworks and cloud computing, all of which are taught as part of the Bachelor of Science in Computer Programming degree. This blog will provide an analogy that can be used to help determine which program, Computer Science, Computer Programming, Information Technology or Cybersecurity is right for you.

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Information technology (IT) is a dynamic field that is still continually evolving. IT corporations need strong leadership to guide them forward into the 21st century. If you aspire to become an IT leader, consider earning your Master of Science in Information Technology Management. You’ll graduate with the essential skills and knowledge you’ll need to succeed in this competitive field.

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The Master of Science in Information Technology Management at Grand Canyon University is a blend of technology and management coursework. The goal is to prepare students to pursue leadership positions in IT management. The broad scope of the program allows grads to work in any field and dive deeply into many current business-related issues.

The focus on organizational behavior, strategic management, business analysis and tech ensures that GCU students can successfully fill top-level technology roles at business in all fields. One career goal for MS IT Management students is that of Chief Technology Officer (CTO), an executive-level leadership role for people with the right IT management skills.

Key Roles of a CTO

Tech Strategy

A CTO oversees the tech and infrastructure at a business. In this role, they monitor how tech is evolving and what changes may benefit the company as a whole. They understand the trends that may impact business goals and seek opportunities to harness the ones that will make a positive change. Additionally, they look at how dated or changing technology could hurt the company’s bottom line and seek to mitigate those outcomes.

Research and Development

Technology standards and regulations fall squarely on the shoulders of the CTO. The person in this position must stay current about compliance and ensure the business is working within the necessary channels to remain legal, professional and successful. This role includes a tremendous amount of research around tech and content management systems, as well as all IT assets. Technology budgets usually fall into this role’s responsibilities, as well, meaning they research the most effective tools for the business and purchase according to cost and needs.


A CTO has several people working for them. These managers and leaders also have several direct reports. It is the responsibility of the CTO that all people working in IT and tech at the company have what they need to successfully complete their work. They lead the culture of the IT team and should work to recruit and retain the best people.

In addition to internal leadership, a CTO must be an evangelist for the company. They form relationships with outside vendors and community stakeholders. They communicate the company’s technology mission and strategy to board members, investors and partners.

If a CTO position is your dream job, get started on the path to IT business leadership with the Master of Science Information Technology Management at Grand Canyon University today.


Computer programmers can make a great impression at the technical interview by being well-prepared for the most common questions. Typically, coders spend weeks studying before each interview. This might seem excessive but remember that the more time you spend preparing for the questions, the more confident you’ll feel in front of the whiteboard.

Questions About Arrays

Interviewers love to ask questions about arrays. In a typical technical interview, you’ll likely get asked multiple questions about them. The problem with them is that, once an array is created, it is impossible to change its size. If you need to make an array shorter or longer, you’ll have to create a brand new array and transfer the elements. To answer array-based questions proficiently, you should brush up on array data structure and programming constructors, like fundamental operators. Consider these common array-based questions and directives:

  • Using Java, reverse an array in place.
  • If an array has multiple duplicates, how can you find duplicate numbers?
  • Using Java, remove duplicates from a particular array.
  • Identify the smallest and largest numbers on an unsorted integer array.

Questions About Linked Lists

Like an array, a linked list stores elements in a linear way. Unlike the array, a linked list does not rely on contiguous storage locations for the elements. Since linked lists are just lists of nodes, you can add or take away elements instead of creating an entirely new linked list. Linked lists are recursive data structures so brush up on the basics of recursion before your technical interview. Consider these common linked list questions and directives:

  • Reverse a linked list.
  • Without recursion, reverse a singly linked list.
  • How can you eliminate duplicate nodes in an unsorted linked list?
  • How can you convert a binary tree to a doubly linked list?
  • How can you swap every two nodes?

Questions About String Coding

If you have a solid knowledge of the array, string-based questions should be easier for you. Strings are a character array. It can be helpful if you remind yourself of the structure of strings, regardless of which programming language you’re using for the solutions. And always remember that strings are immutable. Some of the most common string-based questions and directives include:

  • Find all the permutations of a string.
  • How can you use recursion to reverse a given string?
  • Are two given strings a rotation of each other?
  • Is a given string a palindrome?
  • How can you determine if two strings are anagrams of each other?
  • How could you print duplicate characters from a given string?
  • How can you tell if there are only digits on a given string?

As you can see, there are lots of questions you should prepare for when you’re getting ready for your technical interview. Set aside more time to study than you think you’ll need.

You can prepare for a seamless transition from academia into the workforce with help from the Career IMPACT Center and the Office of Internships. Grand Canyon University is committed to helping our students achieve their career aspirations. If you’re a future student who wants to learn more about our Bachelor of Science in Computer Programming degree, you can click on the link to Request More Information.


As a science major, you are likely to enroll in a course on anatomy and physiology. An introductory anatomy course will cover a great deal of material pertaining to the cells and tissues and bodily systems. Students will learn to recognize key concepts in organ systems and body function. It can be challenging to retain all of this information. There are a few smart studying strategies you can use to give your brain a boost.

Use Anatomy Mnemonic Devices

Mnemonic devices are memory tricks that can help your brain remember complex information. There are at least nine basic types of mnemonics, including musical jingles (ever wonder why so many TV commercials are set to music?) and expression mnemonics. Expression mnemonics are the most commonly used. You might remember Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally from your high school math classes. It helps students remember the order of operations, from parentheses to subtraction. One helpful device for anatomy is PEST OF, which can help you remember the cranial bones:

  • Parietal
  • Ethmoid
  • Sphenoid
  • Temporal
  • Occipital
  • Frontal

Use the device, Come, Let’s Get Sun Burned, to remember the layers of the epidermis.

  • Corneum
  • Lucidum
  • Granulosum
  • Spinosum
  • Basale

Use Visualization Techniques

If you have an active imagination, you can create visual imprints in your mind for the concepts that you’re struggling with. Do this by considering words that might sound similar to the medical terminology. Then, form a picture of those words in your head. The sillier the picture is, the easier it will be to remember. For example, the ginglymoid  joints, which are the hinge joints, sound similar to “jingle mud.” Picture a golfer using those impressive elbow joints to swing a string of jingle bells back and forth through a patch of mud.

Learn the Latin and Greek Roots

If medical terminology sounds like a foreign language, it’s because much of it is! A lot of terms you’ll encounter in anatomy class have Latin or Greek roots. Learn the common prefixes, which are the groups of letters at the beginning of the word and suffixes, which are the letter groupings at the end. The root word is the base. As an example, take a look at “pericarditis.” The root is card, which means “heart.” The suffix is itis, which means “inflammation.” And the prefix is peri, which means “around.” Even if you’d never seen this word before, you could safely assume, based on its basic components, that pericarditis refers to inflammation around the heart. And if you’re familiar with the pericardium, which is the sac-like tissue that surrounds the heart, you can infer that pericarditis is specifically referring to the inflammation of the pericardium. Knowing the components of the words you’re studying can help you decipher other terms as well.

Anatomy is one of the courses you’ll take while you work to earn your Bachelor of Science in Forensic Science . This rigorous degree program will enable you to pursue a rewarding career as a forensic analysis professional. Click on the Request More Information button at the top of your screen to learn how you can become a student at Grand Canyon University.



Cybersecurity is proving to be among the most in-demand career fields of the 21st century. In fact, through 2026, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects the field to grow by 28 percent—a much faster rate than the average. New threats are emerging practically every day and as the cyber-attacks evolve, so too must the tactics used by cybersecurity professionals. Even as cybersecurity specialists look ahead to the future of the digital era, it’s worth taking a look back to see how the field has evolved over time.

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